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It may need for grammar, style, cohesion, tone or spelling. copy editing Tagged since February 2009. Fertility medication is a drug that enhances fertility. For women, fertility medication is used to stimulate follicle development of the ovary. For males, on the other hand, there are very few options of fertility medication.
Agents that enhance ovarian activity can be classified as either
Gonadotropin releasing hormone, Estrogen antagonists or Gonadotropins.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) itself or any of its agonists (i.e. Lupron) may be used. GnRH releases gonadotropins from the hypothalamus in the body.
Fertility medication inhibiting the effects of
estrogen includes Clomiphene citrate and Aromatase inhibitors.
Clomiphene citrate is a SERM. It is an ovarian stimulator by inhibiting the negative feedback of estrogen.
Although primarily a breast cancer treatment,
aromatase inhibitors can also work as fertility medication, probably by a mechanism similar to clomiphene citrate.
Gonadotropins are the hormones in the body that normally stimulate the gonads (testes and ovaries). For medication, they can be extracted from urine or by genetic modification.
Menotropins are urinary gonadotropins, i.e. they are extracted from the urine.
Recombinant gonadotropins are gonadotropins created by inserting the DNA coding it into bacteriae. The bacterial DNA is then called
Recombinant DNA. Examples of recombinant FSH are Follistim and Gonal F, while Luveris is a recombinant LH.
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is normally produced during pregnancy. However, it can also replace LH as an
hMG is a medication containing
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
There is no effective medication to treat
oligospermia, so other assisted reproductive technologies need to be used.
There is ongoing research, with e.g. an Egyptian study indicating efficacy of a combination of
clomiphene citrate and vitamin E in improving sperm count and sperm motility in male infertility.
Estrogen antagonists and gonadotropins may stimulate multiple follicles and other ovarian hormones leading to
multiple birth and possible ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
↑ Ghanem H et al. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: A randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2009 Mar 5; [e-pub ahead of print]. Published in Journal Watch General Medicine March 31, 2009
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