Chiropractic sources

  • Currently 0.00/5

Rating: 0.0/5 (0 votes cast) login to rate

Add to Favorite Print This Page Publish on Twitter
Bookmark and Share

Chiropractic (Note: Some Links will take you FROM Ourmed, to our Sister Site, WikiChiro.org.)

(This page is a highly edited version of a page originally from Wikipedia, which comes to Ourmed from our sister site, WIKICHIRO.ORG where you are also welcome to edit articles freely. NB: The chapter heading/links below will take you directly to those pages at Wikichiro.org)

Contents

Definition

Chiropractic is a health care discipline and profession that emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine, under the hypothesis that these disorders affect general health via the nervous system.[1] Though frequently categorized as a complementary or alternative form of medicine, the World Federation of Chiropractic considers that, as a result of the acceptance of chiropractic as a valid treatment option for various musculoskeletal conditions, the discipline is now in the realm of mainstream. [2] and a 2008 study reported that 31% of surveyed chiropractors categorized chiropractic as CAM, 27% as integrated medicine, and 12% as mainstream medicine.[3]

The primary modality of treatment involves manual therapy, including manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft tissues; treatment also includes adjunctive physio-therapeutic modalities, nutritional supplementation, exercises, and health and lifestyle counseling.[4] Modern Chiropractic Doctors explain the basis of a Chiropractic adjustment by scientifically acceptable terms.

The profession is currently dominated by modern progressive Doctors who are attuned to the results of scientific studies, and are more open to other mainstream and alternative medical techniques such as exercise, massage, nutritional supplements, and acupuncture. [5] Chiropractic is well established in the U.S., Canada and Australia.[6], although, like any profession, there remains a small faction which refuses to give up a concept based in vitalism, called "Innate intelligence". To these people, the mainstream of the profession are considered "mixers", because we include all natural modalities into the "mix".

History

(for History, see Chiropractic history AT WIKICHIRO)

Assimilation into Mainstream

Chiropractic has gained greater acceptance among medical physicians and health plans in the U.S.,[7] and evidence-based medicine has been used to review research studies and generate practice guidelines.[8] Many studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted. Collectively, systematic reviews of this research has demonstrated that spinal manipulation is effective. Spinal manipulation has been alleged to have serious complications in rare cases (about 1.4/1,000,000),[9][10] this is clearly less than the risk of taking an aspirin tablet, and thus chiropractic care is generally safe when employed skillfully and appropriately.[11]

Chiropractic is autonomous, and in some ways competitive with mainstream medicine.[12] Osteopathy enjoys medical licensing only in the US. Outside the U.S. it remains primarily a manual medical system, with mostly less recognition than Chiropractic;[13] physical therapists work as a part of mainstream medicine, and osteopathic medicine in the U.S. has merged with the medical profession.[12] Members distinguish these competing professions with rhetorical strategies that include claims that, compared to other professions, osteopaths use a wider variety of treatment procedures; and that physical therapists emphasize machinery and exercise.[14] Chiropractors, uniquely use a high velocity, low intensity form of manipulation which requires a far higher degree of training and experience to effectively utilize. This may account for the difference in effectiveness of treatment, when one compares these approaches. In a landmark study in 1990 published in the British medical journal involving 741 patients, Chiropractic manipulation was found to be significantly superior to ANY other method of treating low back pain. The same group was followed and in 1995 the BMJ published the follow-up study showing that those results were still demonstrable in that patient population. Later studies showing lesser results apparently did NOT include Chiropractic methods of manipulation and this may be the reason for the significant difference.

WorldWide presence

Chiropractic is established in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, Switzerland, Mexico, Panama, Japan, the UK, Scandinavia, and much of the rest of Western Europe, and is present to a lesser extent in as many as 90 countries.[6]

Education

United States

In the late 1970's the Federal government, through the then Department of Health, Education and Welfare, formally recognized the CCE (and subsequently the New York Board of Regents) as a national accrediting agency for the profession. Then the mostly proprietary colleges scrambled to rid themselves of legacy faculty who were providing an "inbred" education, and replaced them with professors holding PhD's in each of the various disciplines which were also taught in medical colleges. From that period on, the education in Chiropractic changed forever. Consisting of five (5) academic years (10 semesters), after college, like medical school, the modern Doctor of Chiropractic studies all the various medical specialties, as well as a thorough grounding in all the basic and clinical sciences, and diagnosis. The key difference between Chiropractic and medical education is merely the philosophy of therapy, in that the DC is not opposed to drugs or surgery where appropriate or necessary, but prefers to take an approach which uses natural, or "conservative" therapies as a first line of attack on a condition, before resorting to chemicals or invasive procedures.

Accreditation

For Accreditation see: Educational accreditation AT WIKICHIRO

Regulatory boards

For Regulatory boards see: Regulatory boards AT WIKICHIRO

Utilization, satisfaction rates, and third party coverage

In the U.S., chiropractic is the third largest healing arts profession,[5] and is the third largest doctoral profession, behind only medicine and dentistry.[15] The percentage of population that utilizes chiropractic care at any given time generally falls into a range from 6% to 12% in the U.S. and Canada,[16] with a global high of 20% in Alberta.[17] Chiropractors are the most common CAM providers for children and adolescents, who consume up to 14% of all visits to chiropractors.[18] The vast majority who seek chiropractic care do so for relief from back and neck pain and other neuromusculoskeletal complaints;[19] most do so specifically for low back pain. Practitioners such as chiropractors are often used as a complementary form of care to primary medical intervention.[16] Satisfaction rates are typically higher for chiropractic care compared to medical care, with a 1998 U.S. survey reporting 83% of respondents satisfied or very satisfied with their care; quality of communication seems to be a consistent predictor of patient satisfaction with chiropractors.[20]

Insurance coverage

For Insurance coverage see Insurance coverage AT WIKICHIRO

Evidence basis

The principles of evidence-based medicine have been used to review research studies and generate practice guidelines outlining professional standards that specify which chiropractic treatments are legitimate and perhaps reimbursable under managed care. [8] Evidence-based guidelines are supported by one end of an ideological continuum among chiropractors; the other end employs what is considered by many chiropractic researchers to be antiscientific reasoning and unsubstantiated claims,[1][21][22][23] Continuing education enhances the scientific knowledge of the practitioner.[24]

Effectiveness

Many controlled clinical studies of Spinal manipulation (SM) are available, but their results dont always agree,[25].[26] Health claims made by chiropractors about using manipulation for pediatric health conditions are supported by some studies.[18][27][28] A study critical of Chiropractic was refuted when a 2008 supportive review found serious flaws in the critical approach and found that SM and mobilization are at least as effective for chronic low back pain as other efficacious and commonly used treatments. [29] Most research has focused on Spinal manipulation (SM) in general,[30] rather than solely on chiropractic SM.[8] A 2002 review of randomized clinical trials of SM [31] was criticized for not distinguishing between studies of SM in general, and studies on chiropractic SM in particular;[32] however the review's authors stated that they did not consider this difference to be a significant point as research on SM is equally useful regardless of which practitioner provides it.[30]

There is a wide range of ways to measure treatment outcomes.[33] Chiropractic care, like all medical treatment, benefits from the placebo response.[34] It is hard to construct a trustworthy placebo for clinical trials of Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), as experts often disagree about whether a proposed placebo actually has no effect.[35] The efficacy of maintenance care in chiropractic is unknown.[36]

Cost-effectiveness

A 2006 qualitative review found that the research literature suggests that chiropractic obtains at least comparable outcomes to alternatives with potential cost savings.[37] A 2006 systematic cost-effectiveness review found that the reported cost-effectiveness of chiropractic manipulation in the United Kingdom compared favorably with other treatments for back pain, but that reports were based on data from clinical trials without sham controls and that the specific cost-effectiveness of the treatment (as opposed to Non-specific effect) remains uncertain.[38] A 2005 systematic review of economic evaluations of conservative treatments for low back pain found that significant quality problems in available studies meant that definite conclusions could not be drawn about the most cost-effective intervention.[39] The cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care is unknown.[36]

Safety issues

For Safety, see Chiropractic safety at WIKICHIRO

Public health

Most chiropractors do NOT oppose reasonable vaccination or water fluoridation, which are common public health practices. Although within the chiropractic community there are significant disagreements about vaccination,[40][41] one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available.[42] Most chiropractors have embraced a reasonable approach to vaccination, but some of the profession, as in any large group, like, e.g. Medicine, rejects it, as Chiropractic philosophy says that the power that created the body heals the body.

The American Chiropractic Association and the |Int'l Chiropractor's Ass'n support individual exemptions to compulsory vaccination laws. A 1995 survey of U.S. chiropractors found that a minority still believed there was no scientific proof that immunization prevents disease. [41] The Canadian Chiropractic Association supports vaccination;[40] a survey in Alberta in 2002 found that 25% of chiropractors advised patients for, and 27% against, vaccinating themselves or their children.[43]

One needs to keep in perspective that a fully accredited educational process in the USA did not really commence until about 1975, and thus those DC's in practice prior to that time, received what is called an "inbred" education. From the onset of CCE accreditation, the FIVE academic years of graduate education drastically changed the attitudes of the majority of DC's in such matters.

Early opposition to water fluoridation included chiropractors, some of whom continue to oppose it as being incompatible with chiropractic philosophy and an infringement of personal freedom. Other chiropractors have actively promoted fluoridation, and several chiropractic organizations have endorsed scientific principles of public health.[44]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nelson CF, Lawrence DJ, Triano JJ et al. (2005). "Chiropractic as spine care: a model for the profession". Chiropr Osteopat 13: 9. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-9. PMID 16000175. PMC 1185558. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/13/1/9. 
  2. Chapman-Smith DA, Cleveland CS III (2005). "International status, standards, and education of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 111–34. ISBN 0-07-137534-1. 
  3. Redwood D, Hawk C, Cambron J, Vinjamury SP, Bedard J (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Do chiropractors identify with complementary and alternative medicine? results of a survey"]. J Altern Complement Med 14 (4): 361–8. doi:10.1089/acm.2007.0766. PMID 18435599. 
  4. Mootz RD, Shekelle PG (1997). "Content of practice". In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 67–91. OCLC 39856366. http://chiroweb.com/archives/ahcpr/chapter3.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-10.  AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM (1998). "Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions". Arch Intern Med 158 (20): 2215–24. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.20.2215. PMID 9818801. http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/20/2215. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Tetrault M (2004). "Global professional strategy for chiropractic" (PDF). Chiropractic Diplomatic Corps. http://chiropracticdiplomatic.com/strategies/global_strategy.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  7. Cooper RA, McKee HJ (2003). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Chiropractic in the United States: trends and issues"]. Milbank Q 81 (1): 107–38. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.00040. PMID 12669653. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Villanueva-Russell Y (2005). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Evidence-based medicine and its implications for the profession of chiropractic"]. Soc Sci Med 60 (3): 545–61. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.017. PMID 15550303. 
  9. Ernst E (2007). "Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review". J R Soc Med 100 (7): 330–8. doi:10.1258/jrsm.100.7.330. PMID 17606755. PMC 1905885. http://www.jrsm.org/cgi/content/full/100/7/330. Lay summary – Med News Today (2007-07-02). 
  10. Anderson-Peacock E, Blouin JS, Bryans R et al. (2005). "Chiropractic clinical practice guideline: evidence-based treatment of adult neck pain not due to whiplash" (PDF). J Can Chiropr Assoc 49 (3): 158–209. http://www.jcca-online.org/Client/cca/jcca.nsf/objects/jcca-v49-3-158/$file/jcca-v49-3-158.pdf. Anderson-Peacock E, Bryans B, Descarreaux M et al. (2008). "A clinical practice guideline update from The CCA•CFCREAB-CPG" (PDF). J Can Chiropr Assoc 52 (1): 7–8. http://www.jcca-online.org/Client/cca/JCCA.nsf/objects/JCCA_March_2008_52_1/$file/jcca-v52-1-007.pdf. 
  11. World Health Organization (2005) (PDF). WHO guidelines on basic training and safety in chiropractic. ISBN 92-4-159371-7. http://www.who.int/medicines/areas/traditional/Chiro-Guidelines.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Pettman E (2007). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "A history of manipulative therapy"]. J Man Manip Ther 15 (3): 165–74. PMID 19066664. 
  13. Baer HA (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The drive for legitimization by osteopathy and chiropractic in Australia: between heterodoxy and orthodoxy"]. Complement Health Pract Rev 11 (2): 77–94. doi:10.1177/1533210106292467. 
  14. Norris P (2001). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "How 'we' are different from 'them': occupational boundary maintenance in the treatment of musculo-skeletal problems"]. Social Health Illn 23 (1): 24–43. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.00239. 
  15. "Establishing a database of U.S. chiropractic health manpower data: furthering the development of research infrastructure.". National Library of Medicine. http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102184948.html. Retrieved 2008-05-06. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Lawrence DJ, Meeker WC (2007). "Chiropractic and CAM utilization: a descriptive review". Chiropr Osteopat 15: 2. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-15-2. PMID 17241465. PMC 1784103. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/15/1/2. 
  17. Crownfield PW (2007). "Chiropractic in Alberta: a model of consumer utilization and satisfaction". Dyn Chiropr 25 (6). http://chiroweb.com/archives/25/06/02.html. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Kemper KJ, Vohra S, Walls R; Task Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine; the Provisional Section on Complementary, Holistic, and Integrative Medicine (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics"]. Pediatrics 122 (6): 1374–86. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2173. PMID 19047261. 
  19. Hurwitz EL, Chiang LM (2006). "A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: findings from the joint Canada/United States Survey of Health, 2002–03". BMC Health Serv Res 6 (49): 49. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-49. PMID 16600038. PMC 1458338. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/6/49. 
  20. Gaumer G (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Factors associated with patient satisfaction with chiropractic care: survey and review of the literature"]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 29 (6): 455–62. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.06.013. PMID 16904491. 
  21. Keating JC Jr, Charlton KH, Grod JP, Perle SM, Sikorski D, Winterstein JF (2005). "Subluxation: dogma or science?". Chiropr Osteopat 13: 17. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-17. PMID 16092955. PMC 1208927. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/13/1/17. 
  22. Keating JC Jr, Cleveland CS III, Menke M (2005). "Chiropractic history: a primer" (PDF). Association for the History of Chiropractic. http://data.memberclicks.com/site/ahc/ChiroHistoryPrimer.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-16. "A significant and continuing barrier to scientific progress within chiropractic are the anti-scientific and pseudo-scientific ideas (Keating 1997b) which have sustained the profession throughout a century of intense struggle with political medicine. Chiropractors' tendency to assert the meaningfulness of various theories and methods as a counterpoint to allopathic charges of quackery has created a defensiveness which can make critical examination of chiropractic concepts difficult (Keating and Mootz 1989). One example of this conundrum is the continuing controversy about the presumptive target of DCs' adjustive interventions: subluxation (Gatterman 1995; Leach 1994)." 
  23. Science, antiscience, materialism and vitalism:fckLR*Keating JC Jr (1997). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Chiropractic: science and antiscience and pseudoscience side by side"]. Skept Inq 21 (4): 37–43. fckLR*Phillips RB (2005). "The evolution of vitalism and materialism and its impact on philosophy". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 65–76. ISBN 0-07-137534-1. 
  24. Feise RJ, Grod JP, Taylor-Vaisey A (2006). "Effectiveness of an evidence-based chiropractic continuing education workshop on participant knowledge of evidence-based health care". Chiropr Osteopat 14: 18. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-14-18. PMID 16930482. PMC 1560147. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/14/1/18. 
  25. Ernst E, Canter PH (2006). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of spinal manipulation". J R Soc Med 99 (4): 192–6. doi:10.1258/jrsm.99.4.192. PMID 16574972. PMC 1420782. http://www.jrsm.org/cgi/content/full/99/4/192. Lay summary – BBC News (2006-03-22). 
  26. LRQuality of SM studies: LR*Fernández-de-las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, San-Roman J, Miangolarra-Page JC (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Methodological quality of randomized controlled trials of spinal manipulation and mobilization in tension-type headache, migraine, and cervicogenic headache"]. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 36 (3): 160–9. PMID 16596892. LR*Johnston BC, da Costa BR, Devereaux PJ, Akl EA, Busse JW; Expertise-Based RCT Working Group (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The use of expertise-based randomized controlled trials to assess spinal manipulation and acupuncture for low back pain: a systematic review"]. Spine 33 (8): 914–8. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31816b4be4. PMID 18404113. LR
  27. Gotlib A, Rupert R (2008). "Chiropractic manipulation in pediatric health conditions - an updated systematic review". Chiropr Osteopat 16: 11. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-11. PMID 18789139. PMC 2553791. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/16/1/11. 
  28. Ernst E (2009). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Chiropractic manipulation, with a deliberate 'double entendre'"]. Arch Dis Child 94 (6): 411. doi:10.1136/adc.2009.158170. PMID 19460920. 
  29. Bronfort G, Haas M, Evans R, Kawchuk G, Dagenais S (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with spinal manipulation and mobilization"]. Spine J 8 (1): 213–25. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2007.10.023. PMID 18164469. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 Meeker WC, Haldeman S (2002). "Chiropractic: in response" (PDF). Ann Intern Med 137 (8): 702. http://annals.org/cgi/reprint/137/8/701.pdf. 
  31. Meeker WC, Haldeman S (2002). "Chiropractic: a profession at the crossroads of mainstream and alternative medicine" (PDF). Ann Intern Med 136 (3): 216–27. PMID 11827498. http://www.annals.org/cgi/reprint/136/3/216.pdf. 
  32. Ernst E (2002). "Chiropractic" (PDF). Ann Intern Med 137 (8): 701. PMID 12379081. http://annals.org/cgi/reprint/137/8/701.pdf. 
  33. Khorsan R, Coulter ID, Hawk C, Choate CG (2008). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Measures in chiropractic research: choosing patient-based outcome assessments"]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 31 (5): 355–75. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.04.007. PMID 18558278. 
  34. Kaptchuk TJ (2002). "The placebo effect in alternative medicine: can the performance of a healing ritual have clinical significance?" (PDF). Ann Intern Med 136 (11): 817–25. PMID 12044130. http://annals.org/cgi/reprint/136/11/817.pdf. 
  35. Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, McAuley JH (2006). "Selecting an appropriate placebo for a trial of spinal manipulative therapy" (PDF). Aust J Physiother 52 (2): 135–8. PMID 16764551. http://ajp.physiotherapy.asn.au/AJP/vol_52/2/AustJPhysiotherv52i2Hancock.pdf. 
  36. 36.0 36.1 Leboeuf-Yde C, Hestbæk L (2008). "Maintenance care in chiropractic - what do we know?". Chiropr Osteopat 16: 3. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-3. PMID 18466623. PMC 2396648. http://chiroandosteo.com/content/16/1/3. 
  37. Mootz RD, Hansen DT, Breen A, Killinger LZ, Nelson C (2006). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Health services research related to chiropractic: review and recommendations for research prioritization by the chiropractic profession"]. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 29 (9): 707–25. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.09.001. PMID 17142165. 
  38. Canter PH, Coon JT, Ernst E (2006). "Cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies in the United kingdom—a systematic review". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 3 (4): 425–32. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel044. PMID 17173105. PMC 1697737. http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/3/4/425. 
  39. van der Roer N, Goossens MEJB, Evers SMAA, van Tulder MW (2005). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "What is the most cost-effective treatment for patients with low back pain? a systematic review"]. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 19 (4): 671–84. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2005.03.007. PMID 15949783. 
  40. 40.0 40.1 Busse JW, Morgan L, Campbell JB (2005). "Chiropractic antivaccination arguments". J Manipulative Physiol Ther 28 (5): 367–73. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2005.04.011. PMID 15965414. http://jmptonline.org/article/S0161-4754(05)00111-9/fulltext. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 Campbell JB, Busse JW, Injeyan HS (2000). "Chiropractors and vaccination: a historical perspective". Pediatrics 105 (4): e43. doi:10.1542/peds.105.4.e43. PMID 10742364. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/105/4/e43. 
  42. Ehreth J (2003). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "The global value of vaccination"]. Vaccine 21 (7–8): 596–600. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00623-0. PMID 12531324. 
  43. Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). [Expression error: Missing operand for > "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization"]. Vaccine 23 (3): 372–9. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.05.027. PMID 15530683. 
  44. Jones RB, Mormann DN, Durtsche TB (1989). "Fluoridation referendum in La Crosse, Wisconsin: contributing factors to success" (PDF). Am J Public Health 79 (10): 1405–8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.10.1405. PMID 2782512. PMC 1350185. http://www.ajph.org/cgi/reprint/79/10/1405.pdf. 

External links

Template for all Chiropractic articles at Wikichiro.org
ar:معالجة يدوية
ca:Quiropràctica
da:Kiropraktik
de:Chiropraktik
es:Quiropráctica
eo:Kiropraktiko
fa:کایروپرکتیک
fi:Kiropraktiikka
fr:Chiropratique
he:כירופרקטיקה
it:Chiropratica
ja:カイロプラクティック
ko:카이로프랙틱
nl:Chiropraxie
no:Kiropraktor
pl:Kręgarstwo
pt:Quiropraxia
ru:Хиропрактик
ru:Кайропрактик (alternative spelling)
sv:Kiropraktik
tr:Kiropraktik
ur:معالجہ بالید

  • Currently 0.00/5

Rating: 0.0/5 (0 votes cast) login to rate

Add to Favorite Print This Page Publish on Twitter
Bookmark and Share
close about Number of comments per page:
Time format: relative absolute
You need JavaScript enabled for viewing comments




Languages: English • FrenchSpanishChineseOthers